The following are half-day sessions. It may be desirable to host multiple sessions for consistency of presentation since all topics are related.Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Compatibility
For those just entering the exciting field of EMC, trying to figure out what to learn and details of fundamental concepts can be a job in itself. Due to lack of universities not offering courses in EMC, (some aspects of EMC may however, be discussed) this course presents a potpourri of concepts and information in a simplified manner. Most engineers enter the field of EMC by default and are thus untrained to think in terms of propagated fields (frequency domain) instead of voltage and current (time domain), which causes electric and magnetic fields to travel through free space or a transmission line.
The focus of this presentation is on fundamental principles that help explain EMC in simplistic terms. Topics of discussion include EMC requirements, non-ideal behavior of passive components, signal spectra, emission and immunity testing, fundamentals of signal integrity related to printed circuit boards, shielding and system design for EMC.
The target audience is those who need a refresher course on the fundamentals of EMC or for new engineers struggling to solve EMC problems on existing designs in a simplified manner.
Decoupling, Bypassing and Embedded Capacitance for Enhanced PCB Performance
With advances in semiconductor manufacturing, larger pin count devices, greater power consumption and higher clock speeds, power distribution to digital systems on printed circuit boards is becoming a primary concern for design engineers. Signal integrity must be ensured while maintaining electromagnetic compatibility for an intended operating environment, such as high-speed telecommunication, personal computers or industrial control products.
Power plane resonances and lack of energy charge to digital components, now operating at higher frequencies with large amounts of inrush surge current, cause problems that are magnitudes greater than designs from several years ago. Understanding how to incorporate capacitive structures in power distribution networks is becoming a mandatory aspect of digital engineering along with the PCB design and layout process. Areas of concern deal with application of use, proper implementation techniques, equivalent series resistance/inductance, and of course capacitance. Characteristic parameters on how capacitors function and selection criteria are examined. A case study will be presented on what happens when incorrect use of a single decoupling capacitor occurs.
This course targets design engineers who need to understand how and why capacitive structures work in a simplified manner, and how to design an efficient power distribution network at minimal cost.
Testing for EMC Compliance – Approaches and Techniques
This course presents fundamental concepts related to testing products for EMC compliance with a focus on commercial and light-industrial environments. Both emissions and immunity are examined in a manner that permits one to understand what is required and how to perform basic tests, both emissions and immunity. A fundamental understanding on formal conformity assessment is presented for those who have no need to visit a test laboratory, but is responsible for regulator compliance – in other words, how does one repeat a test back in-house (after failing at a test site) to verity the failure and how does one go about to fix the problem.
Basic theory on the need to comply is presented along with the equipment required to perform testing, either compliance or pre-compliance. Troubleshooting techniques are examined. Instrumentation and support equipment along with specialized diagnostic probes and tools is also discussed. Use of the material presented should result in reduced design time, manufacturing costs and improved time-to-market.
The material presented is targeted toward those who desire to understand what it takes to test and certify products, regardless of intended environment or a particular EMC standard.
Fundamental Concepts of Signal Integrity and EMC Related to Printed Circuit Boards
This course presents both simplified theory and rules-driven, hands-on knowledge for enhancement of signal integrity for high-speed signals along with suppression of RF energy (EMI) developed within a printed circuit board. The focus is at the fundamental level. Rigorous mathematical analysis and theory will not be presented however, results from simulations will be examined to show the need for understanding why it is important to implement proper design techniques early during the development cycle.
Every year we see faster and more complex components being used in everyday products. Advances in semiconductor manufacturing are now making design rules and layout techniques for printed circuit boards more difficult if not using simulation software. Currently, signal integrity issues are surpassing EMI concerns. Engineers need to recognize the need for keeping current with newer technologies. The course also provides insight into what is occurring within the field of digital design engineering and how to implement layout techniques that are significantly more complex than designs of yesterday with a focus toward multi-layer, high-density printed circuit boards. Requirements for single- and double-sided designs are examined based upon fundamental concepts related to the design of multi-layer assemblies.
The target audience is those that are still new to the field of EMC and desire greater knowledge on advanced concepts in a short period of time. Experienced engineers will also benefit significantly as the topic material will highlight fundamental aspects of engineering principals that one generally forgets when dealing with complex problems, as well as presenting insight into aspects of printed circuit board design and manufacturing generally unknown to design engineers.
Fundamentals of Grounding and Shielding for System Level Noise Reduction
Grounding is one of the more important aspects of a product design to prevent development and propagation of unwanted RF currents. The concept and implementation of grounding is vague and confusing, yet it forms an inseparable part of a product’s architecture. Grounding is used for: EMC and ESD protection, to protect against electrical safety hazard, and lightening and surge protection. If one does not incorporate an optimal grounding system, serious problems will occur related to signal integrity, EMC, and shock hazard. Many myths exist with grounding implementation. These myths will be examined and discussed.
Shielding is required for applications where suppression techniques on a printed circuit board for undesired RF fields cannot be implemented to a satisfactory degree, or when a system is exposed to external RF noise that can cause functional disruption. Shielding is mechanical whereas grounding is electrical. Adequate levels of shielding are necessary for enhanced performance, yet improper implementation or choice of material may cause increased harm to the compatibility of a product operating within a specific environment.
This course stresses applied Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) related to the design of circuits and systems regardless of application. Designers need to concern themselves with development, propagation and reception of unwanted RF fields both to and from the environment that a product is used within, i.e., residential or industrial. The field of EMC is complex, dealing with a wide range of component and system level analysis, two of which includes the important topic of grounding and shielding.
Signal Integrity and Microelectronics Technology
This course presents both an introduction to transmission line theory and related concerns to ensure optimal signal integrity on printed circuit boards (PCB). The focus is at the fundamental level. In addition an overview of what is needed to solve signal integrity problems is discussed. Details on actual simulation of circuits will not be presented however, different types of simulation software will be discussed that allows one to choose the optimal tool to get the job done.
In the near future, Nanotechnology components will start to become available. This means that processing speeds will exceed 10 GHz with edge rate transitions in the femto-second time frame. Therefore, design rules and layout techniques are now insufficient for today’s products. Interconnects will be fiber optic. Use of standard manufacturing processes for creating and assembly of the PCB must change. In the future, the need for signal integrity will far exceed EMI concerns. Engineers need to recognize the need for keeping current with new technology on the horizon, taking into consideration both time and frequency domain analysis.
The focus of this course provides a basic understanding on how transmission lines within a printed circuit board function. A transmission line, commonly called a trace, connects components together and transfers electromagnetic energy (voltage and current) between two points. Primary concerns include both electrical and physical characteristics of components, including the material used to manufacture the board.
Performing Basic Emission and Immunity Testing for EMC Compliance
This course presents an introduction on how to test the majority of commercial products that require approval to FCC and European (CE) requirements. For those who have minimal experience with EMC test laboratories, or testing in general, this presentation highlights what a test engineer does. Only when one understands how a test is performed can a designer approach a design flaw in an efficient manner, knowing where within the frequency spectrum the anomaly occurred and the magnitude of harmful interference measured, either radiated or received.
Two basic modes of testing are performed for compliance purposes, emissions and immunity. Emissions include radiated fields and conducted currents. Immunity testing includes the following: electrostatic discharge, electrical fast transient/burst, surge, radiated/conducted/magnetic field disturbance, and voltage variation/sag/dropout. This course examines the test setup and instrumentation necessary for all tests identified above.
Understanding FCC and CE Related to EMC – Acronyms Made Simple
This comprehensive course covers basic aspects related to EMC compliance–electric and magnetic fields. After understanding what we need to test and why, a detailed examination of both North American and European/international rules, regulations and requirements is presented.
For FCC approval, identical to that used in Canada, a part-by-part listing of the rules is provided for most areas of concern. The sections examined deal with classification, exemptions, categories of products, identification, record keeping, measurement facilities, labeling requirements, emission limits and documentation for both Information Technology Equipment (ITE) – Part 15, and Industrial, Scientific and Medical Equipment (ISM) – Part 18.
European and international requirements then follows, simplifying the conformity assessment process and what it takes to affix the CE logo. We examine documentation and test requirements for both self-declaration and the use of Technical Construction Files. In addition, the new EMC Directive 2004/108/EC is discussed, comparing this to the old EMC Directive 89/336/EEC.